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ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

For questions about the usage of KeyHelp and the configuration of it services.
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george
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ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Sa 21. Mär 2020, 00:12

PART 1: OVERVIEW
PART 2: INSTALL & CONFIGURE
PART 3: SECURITY ADMIN
PART 4: SECURITY EXTRAS

###############################
### PART 4: SECURITY EXTRAS ###
###############################

In "Security Extras", we look at additional security measures to compliment CSF.
This is not a manual on any of the following topics, but just some nice, easy inclusions for them. Further reading on the following topics is recommended.

CONTENT
- IP RESTRICTION
- HTACCESS
- WEB APP SECURITY
- WORDPRESS SECURITY
- FINAL NOTE

IP RESTRICTION
The biggest security boost you can make on a server, is to restrict access based on IP address. Think about it... if I limit access to a resource, to allow my IP address only, the whole world is locked out!

KeyHelp Login Security
KeyHelp has such a security feature for Administrators.
KeyHelp > SETTINGS > Configuration / Login & session
Restrict administrative access:
Here you can restrict the login for administrator accounts to one or more IPs or subnet addresses

Bild

KeyHelp User Panel enables a User to password-protect a directory:
KeyHelp User Panel > SECURITY > Directory Protection

CSF Restrictions
UI access is restricted by IP address: /etc/csf/ui/ui.allow
CSF can also restrict port access by Country Code:
Firewall Configuration (csf.conf) - SECTION:Country Code Lists and Settings
The Country Code restrictions can be placed on any service port.

CSF Port & IP Filters
In /etc/csf/csf.allow and /etc/csf/csf.deny you can add more complex port and
ip filters using the following format (you must specify a port AND an IP
address):

Code: Alles auswählen

tcp/udp|in/out|s/d=port|s/d=ip|u=uid

Broken down:

tcp/udp  : EITHER tcp OR udp OR icmp protocol
in/out   : EITHER incoming OR outgoing connections
s/d=port : EITHER source OR destination port number (or ICMP type)
           (use a _ for a port range, e.g. 2000_3000)
           (use a , for a multiport list of up to 15 ports, e.g. 22,80,443)
s/d=ip   : EITHER source OR destination IP address
u/g=UID  : EITHER UID or GID of source packet, implies outgoing connections,
           s/d=IP value is ignored
HTACCESS
The htaccess file, is the last of the Apache configs that gets processed. It allows fine-grained configuration, at the user level. A user with read/write access to the site root directory, can create/edit a file named ".htaccess".
Any directory may contain a .htaccess file, that applies directives to that directory.
The htaccess file can be used to restrict access by IP address, to any resource.
htaccess is a mostly neglected aspect of security - but it is capable of so much!
Apache has plenty of good documentation - fully searchable:
https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/

Test
After making edits to .htaccess, its a good idea to visit the site, and test the usual functions. Error-causing directives should be isolated, and modified/removed.

Security Directives
KeyHelp already has some security directives included. Included here are directives that can further boost security. Some you can use as-is, others may need customisation. Many were extracted from wordpress plugin BulletProof Security, and are good for many uses.

Add to your .htaccess
Copy/paste/edit:

Code: Alles auswählen

###  HTACCESS: SECURE  ###

# DENY ACCESS TO PROTECTED SERVER FILES AND FOLDERS
# Modify these to match files you want to protect
RedirectMatch 403 \.(htaccess|htpasswd|errordocs|logs)$
<FilesMatch "^(wp-config\.php|php\.ini|\.user\.ini|readme\.html)">
Require all denied
</FilesMatch>

# ALLOW ONLY NECESSARY REQUEST METHODS - else 405 Method Not Allowed
# HEAD method may be removed, esp. for private sites/services
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} !^(GET|POST|HEAD) [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [R=405,L]

# ALLOW ACCESS TO FILE IN RESTRICTED DIRECTORY
# allow access to a file, that is within a restricted directory
# Include in .htaccess of the restricted directory, at top
<Files admin-ajax.php>
Require all granted
</Files>

# RESTRICT ACCESS TO DIRECTORY BY IP ADDRESS
# Include in .htaccess of any directory
<RequireAny>
Require all denied
Require ip 1.2.3.4
Require ip 5.6.7.8/12
# If local server access to the directory is required
# add the following; include the server ip addresses (ipv4 & ipv6)
# Require local
# Require ip 9.10.11.12
# Require ip 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334
</RequireAny>

# RESTRICT ACCESS TO FILE BY IP ADDRESS
<Files wp-login.php>
Require all denied
Require ip 1.2.3.4
Require ip 5.6.7.8/12
# If local server access to the file is required
# add the following; include the server ip addresses (ipv4 & ipv6)
# Require local
# Require ip 9.10.11.12
# Require ip 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334
</Files>

# ===== BRUTE FORCE LOGIN PAGE PROTECTION =====
# Protects the Login page from SpamBots, HackerBots & Proxies
# that use Server Protocol HTTP/1.0 or a blank User Agent
# This is for Wordpress login. For non-wordpress 
# remove/modify the next line - you can use any REQUEST_URI
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^(/wp-login\.php|.*wp-login\.php.*)$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} HTTP/1\.0$ [OR]
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PROTOCOL} HTTP/1\.0$
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [F,L]

# WORDPRESS ONLY
# Block the Include-only files
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^wp-admin/includes/ - [F,L]
RewriteRule !^wp-includes/ - [S=3]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/[^/]+\.php$ - [F,L]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/js/tinymce/langs/.+\.php - [F,L]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/theme-compat/ - [F,L]
</IfModule>

# ===== Headers: Security & CORS - content-type: text/html =====
# HSTS should be set at KeyHelp > Domains / Edit domain > Security (tab)
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/html#"
	Header always append X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/html#"
	Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/html#"
	Header set X-Content-Type-Options nosniff "expr=%{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m#text/html#"
</IfModule>

# ===== Regex Match Exploits =====
# The following directives match many exploits - blocked before they even get a chance!
# These seem to work fine on all KeyHelp services.
# Note: Take care with these directives, as some may cause a loss of functionality on some php applications. Skip rules may be created, for them to bypass these.
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (havij|libwww-perl|wget|python|nikto|curl|scan|java|winhttp|clshttp|loader) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (;|<|>|'|"|\)|\(|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%28|%3C|%3E|%00).*(libwww-perl|wget|python|nikto|curl|scan|java|winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (\?|\*|%2a)+(%20+|\\s+|%20+\\s+|\\s+%20+|\\s+%20+\\s+)(http|https)(:/|/) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} etc/passwd [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} cgi-bin [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (%0A|%0D|\\r|\\n) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} owssvr\.dll [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} \.opendirviewer\. [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} users\.skynet\.be.* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(http|https):// [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12} [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\.\./|%2e%2e%2f|%2e%2e/|\.\.%2f|%2e\.%2f|%2e\./|\.%2e%2f|\.%2e/) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ftp\: [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (http|https)\: [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=\|w\| [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^(.*)/self/(.*)$ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^(.*)cPath=(http|https)://(.*)$ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\<|%3C).*script.*(\>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^s]*s)+cript.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\<|%3C).*embed.*(\>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^e]*e)+mbed.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\<|%3C).*object.*(\>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^o]*o)+bject.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\<|%3C).*iframe.*(\>|%3E) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^i]*i)+frame.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR] 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode.*\(.*\) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} GLOBALS(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2}) [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2}) [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^.*(\(|\)|<|>|%3c|%3e).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^.*(\x00|\x04|\x08|\x0d|\x1b|\x20|\x3c|\x3e|\x7f).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (NULL|OUTFILE|LOAD_FILE) [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (\.{1,}/)+(motd|etc|bin) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|>|'|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \-[sdcr].*(allow_url_include|allow_url_fopen|safe_mode|disable_functions|auto_prepend_file) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (;|<|>|'|"|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|drop|delete|update|cast|create|char|convert|alter|declare|order|script|set|md5|benchmark|encode) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (sp_executesql) [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [F,L]
Lockdown htaccess
If you administer a site, and have access as user "root", you can lock down htaccess even more.
Change the ownership/permissions of .htaccess, to prevent modification by others:
(Replace $USER with the username, replace $DOMAIN with site root directory)

Code: Alles auswählen

cd /home/users/$USER/www/$DOMAIN
chmod 404 .htaccess
chown root:root .htaccess
Note: To enable editing "chmod 644 .htaccess"

WEB APP SECURITY
Web application security is often neglected. Good security uses a multi-layered approach - OS security, permissions/ownership, Apache directives/htaccess, firewall rules, restricted ip access, web app controls/restrictions, limit logins, file scanning, etc.
The htaccess directives above, especially "Regex Match Exploits", will definitely help to protect most web apps.
Your web app may have security features/plugins available - definitely worth a look.
Examples of good security plugins, appear below under "WORDPRESS SECURITY".

robots.txt
Placed in the domain's root directory, the robots.txt file contains directives for search bots. Resources are either allowed, or disallowed access to. This is a softer option than blocking.
If you have a private website, that you would like to keep OFF the major search engines:
1. Create robots.txt at site root
2. Add this text into it (disallows search indexing):

Code: Alles auswählen

User-agent: *
Disallow: /
Some evil bots may ignore robots.txt, and try to access the disallowed resource. If they are bothersome or resource hungry, use htaccess directives to block them, or add their IP/s to CSF.

WORDPRESS SECURITY
These are the best Wordpress security plugins I have found. Covered from every angle!

NinjaFirewall
NinjaFirewall is a true Web Application Firewall. Monitors for changed files, bots, XSS/PHP/SQL exploits and more. You can export/import settings for use on other websites. Nice compliment to CSF.

WP Bruiser (no-Captcha anti-Spam)
Eradicates comment spam, protects website forms - uses a token that bots don't get.
This is the best anti-spam for form input.

Limit Login Attempts Reloaded
Limits Wordpress login attempts and blocks abusive ip addresses.
Note: This job may be assigned to CSF instead, by using the WP Fail2ban Redux plugin, and creating some regex for CSF.

FINAL NOTE
If you followed the instructions carefully, you should now be running a powerfully configured CSF, with robust security. If you have problems, questions, or comments, post a reply here.

You can never be too rich, too good looking, or too secure!
Enjoy the journey...

- George
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Enigma
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von Enigma » Sa 21. Mär 2020, 17:59

Wow, thank you very much for this extremely detailed guide! 👍

Cheers,
Jan
Zuletzt geändert von Enigma am Sa 21. Mär 2020, 23:02, insgesamt 1-mal geändert.
This message has been ROT-13 encrypted twice for higher security.
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george
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Sa 21. Mär 2020, 22:12

You're welcome. Hope you get some good use out of it...
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chaiavi
Beiträge: 23
Registriert: Mi 22. Apr 2020, 22:02

Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von chaiavi » Fr 24. Apr 2020, 08:28

George, your 4 part article (I did try to read) is waaaaaay over my understanding.

Although I do have a good grasp of the main concepts.



THIS IS A TRUE WORK OF ART 8-)


Thank you, for this security bible.


As a simple user, who wants security (that is why I am using VPS now instead of hostgator reseller), I understand the huge importance of the issue, I myself am using Amazon VPS now because my sites were hacked on hostgator.
But as a simple user, I won't even attempt all of your magic, as if something goes wrong somewhere I won't have an idea how to fix anything of it.

So I will stick to fail2ban and htaccess rules :x


As a sidenote, I want to recommend Jeff Starr's 7g firewall (using htaccess rules):
https://perishablepress.com/7g-firewall/

This is another genius in the field which I don't understand what he does but I have the notion he is fully trust worthy



Again, thanks.
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george
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Wohnort: AUSTRALIA

Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Fr 24. Apr 2020, 23:50

Glad you enjoyed it Chaiavi, and thanks for compliments.
Any boost in security is good, and using a "multi-layered" approach helps to block even partially successful exploits.
Using fail2ban you can still secure things further by creating your own regex.
As for 7G firewall, I checked it out some time ago, but found that it blocked too much. I would say it is for advanced users, as extensive monitoring is required to prevent false positives.
Enjoy the boosted security!
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george
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Di 19. Mai 2020, 00:22

After coordinated attacks on my server, originating from IP addresses in China, I decided to block the whole country (CN). This has reduced attack attempts by over 50%! When all web traffic from China is composed of exploits, this just seems the logical choice.

It is not the chinese people I want to block, but the "open" servers used to launch attacks. The people in China are commonly blocked access to various web resources, by the "Great Firewall of China" - their government. To circumvent a block, some people use VPN/proxy, to access those forbidden resources.
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chaiavi
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von chaiavi » Di 19. Mai 2020, 07:14

Thanks George,

Can you elaborate about that a bit please?

Are their vpn's from china also ?
If not then where do you get the list of VPN IPs to block ?


What did you use to block them ? Firewall ? which one ?


And the big question I have is what hit in performance did you get, when for every incoming request you scan a big list of IPs...
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george
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Di 19. Mai 2020, 10:34

In the CSF configuration, it is easy...
SECTION: Country Code Lists and Settings:

Code: Alles auswählen

CC_DENY = CN
If using CSF and IPSET, the performance hit is negligible.
There are 9000+ ipv4, and 6000+ ipv6 address blocks for China, which is handled easily by IPSET.
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chaiavi
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von chaiavi » Di 19. Mai 2020, 11:29

Thank you


I think this is a very good idea!
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george
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Sa 23. Mai 2020, 02:04

After the 20.1 update, all my settings remained intact, so this CSF Guide is still good. Only one file disappeared, the .htaccess I had placed in KeyHelp web directory - the whole directory was recreated in the update. I simply copied the lost .htaccess from my latest backup, into KeyHelp again.

Many thanks to Alexander, for another trouble-free update :)

PS: I got an extra smile, when testing the SSL, it rates as A+ :D
Vito
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Registriert: Sa 29. Sep 2018, 15:06

Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von Vito » Di 2. Jun 2020, 14:01

Is it possible to use .htpasswd on the panel login url?

I tried, but I got errors :?
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george
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Re: ConfigServer Security & Firewall (CSF) on KeyHelp - GUIDE: PART 4

Beitrag von george » Di 2. Jun 2020, 23:56

Hi Vito, yes its possible, you can protect ANY directory!

First we create the .htpasswd file, then the .htaccess for the protected directory.

You can create the .htpasswd manually as described here:
https://help.dreamhost.com/hc/en-us/art ... ccess-file

I cheated a bit, and used the feature in a KeyHelp User Panel to create the .htpasswd. Then I reference that one password file to protect multiple directories.

Create .htpasswd in KeyHelp:
KeyHelp User Panel > Security > Directory Protection

The .htpasswd created by KeyHelp, is stored at:
/etc/apache2/keyhelp/htpasswd/
Make note of this file, as it is referenced in .htaccess. It will look something like this:
.htpasswd_superadmin_d6aed52984ec401ebedf74286a243e4e

Now we can do the .htaccess file, and place it into the directories we want to protect.

Create a file called .htaccess

Enter the details:

Code: Alles auswählen

AuthType Basic
AuthName "superadmin"
AuthBasicProvider file
AuthUserFile "/etc/apache2/keyhelp/htpasswd/.htpasswd_superadmin_d6aed52984ec401ebedf74286a243e4e"
<RequireAny>
Require local
Require valid-user
</RequireAny>
Note: I have used "Require local" as an option, to avoid local keyhelp traffic from being blocked.

Finally, to protect the panel login, place the .htaccess file into the KeyHelp directory at:
/home/keyhelp/www/keyhelp/

Now your panel login cannot be accessed without a password. Enjoy...

NOTE: After the previous KeyHelp update, the .htaccess in keyhelp directory was destroyed. Make sure to keep a backup, and replace if necessary.
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